TECH BUYER Apr 2022 - IDC Perspective - Doc # CA48406022

Space — The Crowded Frontier: LEO Satellite Constellations 2021–2022 Update


Lawrence Surtees
Table of Contents

Executive Snapshot

Figure: Executive Snapshot: Space, the Crowded Frontier — LEO Satellite Constellations 2021-2022 Update

Situation Overview

New Market Developments and (Astro)Dynamics


Figure: Number of LEO Satellites Versus Total Satellites in Orbit Monthly, 2019-2021, and NASA Computer Rendering of Tracked Objects in Space

Figure: Current Satellites on Orbit, March 2022

International LEO Broadband Satellite Battle Intensifies

Figure: Initial SpaceX Flotilla of 60 LEO Satellites Simultaneously Released in Orbit, May 2019

Figure: LEO Constellation Satellites, Planned and in Orbit, March 2022

LEO Constellation and 5G Wireless Integration

Figure: 3GPP Standards Release 15 Enabling Integration of Non-Terrestrial and 5G Wireless Networks

LEO Constellation Launches Ramp Up in 2021-2022

SpaceX Starlink

Figure: Swarm Technologies' SpaceBEE Architecture

Amazon Project Kuiper

Telesat Lightspeed

Figure: Telesat Lightspeed LEO Satellite Design and Lightspeed Constellation
Figure: Comparison of Four LEO Constellations
Figure: Round Trip Time Latency Comparison of Telesat Lightspeed LEO Satellite Versus Terrestrial Latency (Milliseconds)
Figure: LEO Satellite Enterprise Use Cases and Benefits


Kepler Communications

Figure: CubeSat Miniature Satellite Concept and Kepler-6 and -7 CubeSats

Lynk Global

Boeing V-Band Constellation

Astra Seeks LEO Constellation

China Satellite Network Group Guowang Constellation

Astronomical Concerns Mount with LEO Constellations Growth

Orbital and Spectrum Access Competition

Space Environment: LEO Constellation Light Pollution Hampers Astronomers

Crowded Orbits and Congestion-Causing Conjunctions

Figure: Visualization of Detected Space Objects Near-Misses Worldwide Over a 24-Hour Period
Figure: Simulation of SpaceX Starlink Constellation Ground Tracks, 2019-2033
Figure: Satellite Orbit Types and Altitudes

Space Debris Imperils Commercial Space Viability and Manned Space Safety

Figure: Example of Hypervelocity Space Debris Impact
Figure: Space Junk Catalog by Debris Type, 1958-2010
Figure: Space Debris by Orbit Type, 1956-2021

Kinetic ASAT Attacks Threaten Space Missions and LEO Constellations

Figure: Space Track of Russian Anti-Satellite Target COSMOS-1408 and Russian A-235 PL19 Nudol Anti-Ballistic Anti-Satellite Missile System
Figure: International Space Station and Orbit Conjunction Plot with COSMOS-1408
Figure: Congested Satellite Orbits Fill with Space Junk Debris
Figure: Canadian Military Sapphire Space Debris Spacecraft on Orbit
Figure: Incoherent Scatter Radars at Resolute Bay Observatory in Nunavut
Figure: Artist Conception of NorthStar Earth and Sky Skylark SSA Satellite and ExoAnalytic Space Operations Center Sensor Display

Debris Mitigation Measures

Figure: Protected Regions in LEO and GEO Regions
Figure: European Space Agency's ClearSpace-1 Planned Debris Removal Mission Profile and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Research Institute Debris Removal Vehicle


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