Led by president and CEO Kirk Campbell, IDC's veteran management team guides a group of 2,000 global employees, including more than 1,100 of the industry's most knowledgeable and forward-thinking analyst experts. Under its dynamic leadership, IDC has become the premier global provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.
President and CEO
Kirk Campbell joined IDC as Chief Operating Officer in 1990 and became President and CEO in 1991. Under his leadership, IDC has rapidly strengthened its position in the technology market intelligence business. Since 1990 IDC's revenues have increased from $30 million to $400 million, the number of employees has quintupled to more than 2,000, and the number of countries which IDC research covers has grown from 25 to over 110. As a result, IDC offers the most comprehensive market intelligence available on all key technology segments from the internet, PCs, systems, peripherals and semiconductors to software, services, telecommunications, vertical markets and distribution channels. IDC has invested heavily in developing an unrivaled research network at the worldwide, regional, and country levels.
Mr. Campbell joined International Data Group in 1988 as a Vice President responsible for corporate business planning and analysis for over 100 IDG business units. Prior to his position at IDG, Mr. Campbell was Vice President, Finance and Corporate Development for PennWell Publishing, a high-tech information and publishing company. He also held financial positions with Exxon Corporation. Mr. Campbell earned a Bachelor's degree from Stanford University and a Master's degree from Princeton University. He also was a Fulbright Scholar at the Free University in Berlin, Germany.
Managing Director, IDC Asia/Pacific
Eva Au is the Managing Director of IDC Asia/Pacific, with over 20 years of international expertise in sales, marketing, business development and general management across North America and Asia. In her current leadership role, Eva oversees business operations across 14 countries in the APeJ region, managing core functional areas such as Research, Consulting, Events, Sales, Marketing, & Finance.
Since joining IDC, Eva has further entrenched IDC's thought leadership position in the industry, spearheading the development of strategic research themes and go-to-market solutions for a comprehensive perspective of the diverse IT market.
Eva was instrumental in launching IDC's Emerging Technology Advisory Service, an incubator program to identify new ICT areas of interest. Eva's focus on evolving research, outstanding customer service and satisfaction, and deeper geographic insights through leveraging synergies has seen the expansion of IDC's end-user research and advisory influence in Asia/Pacific, as well as stronger growth and capability in custom research by industry. Her direction has fast-tracked the growth of regional and country-level research and insights about Asia/Pacific’s readiness, maturity and adoption of 3rd Platform technologies to propel digital transformation (DX) within organizations.
Prior to joining IDC, Eva was Managing Director of LexisNexi’s Asia, a global legal and information publishing house in Canada and Asia. Under her leadership, business development, customer loyalty, corporate branding, global account management, and product customization initiatives catapulted LexisNexi’s as the premier content provider in its key markets. Eva was awarded LexisNexi's "Passion for Winning" and "Circle of Excellence" awards seven times in total in recognition of her outstanding contributions, strong enthusiasm and commitment to her work.
Follow Eva on Twitter at @evaaueva.
Chief Human Resources Officer
Ms. Bernardi leads IDC’s Human Resources function worldwide and is an active part of IDC's senior management team. Through strategic leadership, Ms. Bernardi drives the planning and implementation of quality-based, integrated human resources programs throughout the US and international workforce. Her mission is to take care of IDC’s most valuable resource, the “People”.
Ms. Bernardi’s recent focus has been on delivering a high quality and unique IDC employee experience, including building a robust online presence through branding initiatives, the recruitment of top talent, programs and initiatives that highlight IDC’s unique global culture, women and diversity initiatives, the IDC Mentoring and Wellness Programs, as well as the IDC employee led IDC Cares Committee dedicated to giving back both locally and globally. She leads her innovative HR team to hire, assimilate, develop and grow an organization of long tenured, creative, entrepreneurial employees. IDC boasts a high percentage of “boomerang” employees who return to IDC while maintaining lower than industry turnover rates. Ms. Bernardi creates strategy and initiatives to drive worldwide change, such as selection and adoption of IDC’s WW database, ATS tool and Engagement Survey vendor. She is responsible for IDC’s Affirmative Action Plan and compliance issues.
Ms. Bernardi joined IDG in 1989 and was responsible for creating the first collaborative training program for all IDG business units. Shortly after, she began work in the Human Resources Service Division (HRSD), providing HR generalist services to a variety of smaller IDG business units, including IDC. In September 1991, Ms. Bernardi was hired as an HR Manager at IDC. At that time, IDC employed only 85 people. IDC now boasts a U.S. workforce of 500+ US employees and 1,200 international employees. Ms. Bernardi was promoted to Vice President of Human Resources & Education in 1998, and again to IDC’s Chief Human Resources Officer in 2016.
Before joining IDC, Ms. Bernardi worked in recruiting and training at Massachusetts General Hospital as well as York Hospital in Maine. Ms. Bernardi earned a Bachelor's degree from the University of New Hampshire and a Master's degree from Lesley University. She is also a graduate of the American Society of Training and Development's Train the Trainer program. She is certified in Myers Briggs Type Indicator, the Results System, Motivation Factor as well as a graduate of the Center of Creative Leaderships 360 feedback tools.
Crawford Del Prete
Executive Vice President, Worldwide Research Products & Chief Research Officer
Crawford Del Prete, Executive Vice President, Worldwide Products and Chief Research Officer, manages IDC's WW research and consulting businesses. This includes IDC's Enterprise Computing, Storage, Networking, Integration, Development and Application Software, Professional Services, Telecommunications, Personal Computing, Mobility, Consumer, Digital Marketplace, SMB, Vertical Markets, Consulting and WW Tracker research practices. Mr. Del Prete is also responsible for IDC's Industry Insights Companies, which specifically target the needs of end users in six vertical segments. Mr. Del Prete serves on the operating review boards of PC World and Macworld.
Mr. Del Prete is a leading authority on the IT industry and has completed extensive research on the structure and evolution of the information technology industry. In 2001, Mr. Del Prete forged IDC's partnership with Innosight, the consultancy founded by Harvard Business School Professor Clayton Christensen. Together, the companies have created a body of work to understand and predict trends in disruptive innovation. Mr. Del Prete also serves as IDC's lead analyst covering Hewlett Packard.
Mr. Del Prete joined IDC in 1989. At that time he initiated coverage of the Winchester Disk Drive market, and was a founder of IDC's European and Asia Pacific storage research programs. In 1997, Mr. Del Prete founded IDC's coverage of the Semiconductor marketplace. In 1995, Mr. Del Prete was honored with IDC's James Peacock award for research excellence, IDC's highest honor. That same year he was voted "most valuable" storage analyst by an outside panel of his peers from the International Disk Equipment Manufacturers Association. Mr. Del Prete is a member of the United States Computer History Museum Storage Committee.
Prior to IDC, Mr. Del Prete worked in marketing at Installed Technology International. Before this, he was with Paine Webber Jackson and Curtis in New York in the government securities and commercial lending sectors. Mr. Del Prete holds a B.A. from Michigan State University and in 2012 was named a Distinguished Alumni of the University, the highest award given to graduates.
Senior Vice President, Enterprise Infrastructure and Datacenter
Matt Eastwood is Senior Vice President of IDC’s enterprise, datacenter, cloud infrastructure and developer research groups. His responsibilities include managing market analysis, tracking, forecasting and consulting for enterprise computing, storage, networking, systems infrastructure software, infrastructure services, cloud infrastructure services, edge infrastructure, datacenter and developers. He leads a team of analysts responsible for identifying and analyzing people, process and technology trends affecting the deployment and management of edge infrastructure, enterprise datacenters and clouds worldwide.
Mr. Eastwood speaks frequently at IDC, industry, and user events around the world and is frequently quoted in leading business and technology publications. During his tenure at IDC, Mr. Eastwood has led IDC primary research focused on emerging trends in enterprise systems, datacenters and developers.
Prior to joining IDC in 2000, Mr. Eastwood worked as a senior project manager and operations manager at CDM Smith in Boston.
Mr. Eastwood received a B.S. in Civil/Environmental Engineering from Northeastern University in Boston and earned his M.S. in Engineering Project Management from WPI in Worcester, MA.
Senior Vice President, EMEA Region, MD CEMA Region
Steven Frantzen is a long-time specialist on the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry and markets of Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA). As Senior Vice President for Research and Consulting, Mr. Frantzen oversees the planning and execution of IDC's standard research programs and consulting for 75 countries spanning Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe and the Middle East and Africa.
Mr. Frantzen is also responsible for managing IDC’s business units in Central and Eastern Europe, and Middle East and Africa (CEMA), overseeing the planning, development, implementation, and coordination of the full range of IDC's operations and activities across 21 IDC offices located throughout these regions.
Mr. Frantzen joined IDC in 1990 as the company’s first dedicated employee for the region of Central and Eastern Europe, overseeing office, business and product development ranging from new standard research and data services, covering the range of ICT technologies, to custom research and consulting engagements and the establishment of marketing services such as events. He received subsequent responsibility for the Middle East and Africa region in 1999, followed up by Western Europe in 2005.
Frantzen's experience in the ICT field reflects a combination of study, travel, and work activities. He holds undergraduate degrees in Political Science, History and German from the University of Iowa, which included several years of study abroad in Germany (Universities of Trier and Bonn) and Hungary. He also attended the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in Boston, Massachusetts for a Masters degree, where his studies focused on international business and trade and Soviet and Eastern European studies. He is fluent in German and proficient in Russian and Czech.
Mr. Frantzen was awarded IDG’s Chairman’s Cup for Overall Management Excellence in 2013.
Senior Vice President, Research
As Senior Vice President, John Gantz has responsibility for all IDC's worldwide demand-side research, global market models, and portal products. Prior to this role, he was in charge of worldwide research and consulting in personal systems, consumer devices, workgroup and collaborative computing, and services. He is also a member of IDC's management committee, chief architect of IDC's Global Internet Commerce Market Model, and one of IDC's chief spokespersons on broad technology and market issues. He cofounded IDC's annual Internet Executive Forum, founded IDC's PC Market Outlook conferences, and is a regular speaker at IDC's annual Directions conferences in the United States and around the world.
Prior to joining IDC in September 1992, Mr. Gantz was Vice President and Chief Analyst for Dataquest and Director of its Software Research Group. Before joining Dataquest in 1991, Mr. Gantz was executive Vice President of TFS, Inc., a custom research and consulting company that he cofounded in 1983. Before TFS, Mr. Gantz was a Vice President at IDC, where he managed newsletter operations and research programs in software and office automation.
Mr. Gantz is well known in the industry through his frequent speaking and consulting engagements and his bylined biweekly column in Computerworld. In the past he has served as contributing editor for Networking Management, Computer Graphics World, InfoWorld, and Digital News. He has also published articles in Fortune, Forbes, Industry Week, Discover, High Technology, and Management Technology. Additional national and international exposure has come through quotes in all major business publications, interviews on CNN, and chairperson assignments at all major computer industry trade shows, including COMDEX, Internet Commerce Expo, ComNet, ITAA, NCGA, and PC Expo.
Mr. Gantz is a graduate of Dartmouth College, former Navy submarine officer, and coauthor of The Naked Computer (Morrow, 1983). He has run two Boston Marathons (1979 and 1980) and hiked the Appalachian Trail end to end (1973). He is married and has two sons.
Senior Vice President & Chief Analyst
As IDC's Senior Vice President & Chief Analyst, Frank Gens guides IDC's research into broad IT industry trends, particularly the strategic adoption of technology by Global 2000 businesses and the industries in which they compete.
Since 2008, Mr. Gens has led IDC's global cloud research team, driving the development of IDC's widely-used cloud services taxonomy, and the industry's first and most accurate forecast of cloud services adoption. He has also led the development of IDC's "3rd Platform" scenario - forecasting the transformation of the IT industry (and other industries) through the strategic use of cloud, mobile, social and big data technologies.
Mr. Gens speaks frequently to CIOs, other enterprise executives and IT vendor executives at forums around the world, most recently in Brazil, China, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey and the U.S. He regularly participates in strategic consulting engagements - often around Cloud and 3rd Platform trends - for senior executives in global IT vendor and IT buyer organizations.
Mr. Gens is the author of IDC Predictions, the company's annual forecast of major changes in the global development and use of technology, and keynote speaker at IDC's annual Directions conferences in the U.S. and in many other countries. Mr. Gens is a member of IDC's worldwide management team, a lead developer of IDC's global research architecture, and a co-chair of IDC's Research Quality Board.
Mr. Gens is a 30 year veteran of the IT research and advisory services business, including over 20 years at IDC in a variety of senior roles, including leading IDC's end-user research business and developing IDC's global Internet research capabilities. In addition to research management roles, Mr. Gens' career includes senior positions in new product development and introduction, product management, marketing, business development, corporate development, and regional operations management. Prior to IDC, Mr. Gens held management positions at International Data Group (IDG), AMR Research and The Yankee Group.
Managing Director, IDC Canada
Lars Goransson is responsible for IDC's Canadian operation as Managing Director. IDC Canada's product and services offerings provide the Canadian IT community with market intelligence and market based research across the value continuum of budgeting & planning, marketing awareness and lead generation, and measurement and performance management.
Prior to his role as Managing Director, Lars has held a number of senior analyst and management roles since joining IDC in 1996, most recently as General Manager & Group VP. Previously, Lars managed IDC Canada’s Custom Solutions Group providing proprietary advisory services to Canadian clients. Lars started his career with IDC in the IT outsourcing space and successfully built a very a large IT Services Research Group in Canada.
Mr. Goransson is a graduate of the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. Lars is a board member at the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC). He is also a board member at the Canadian Channel Chiefs Council (C4) and chairs the Research Committee. He is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and a member of the Canadian Association of Management Consultants (CAMC).
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Custom Solutions
As senior vice president of custom solutions, Scott McLarnon leads the IDC global business unit providing clients with custom marketing and market intelligence solutions. His team provides custom analytics, buyer behavior, partnering, content marketing, interactive tools, thought leadership and sales enablement programs. Mr. McLarnon has extensive experience working with clients to design and apply market intelligence to inform strategic planning, guide decisions, manage operations and improve performance. His projects have influenced industry evolution and shaped client decisions on strategic direction; product design; marketing campaigns, positioning and messaging; partnering programs and global expansion.
Mr. McLarnon was instrumental in developing and building IDC's custom research and consulting business. An experienced market researcher, he has employed both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to study the IT industry.
Prior to IDC, Mr. McLarnon was a senior consultant with a leading strategy and management consulting firm. He previously held research, market analysis, planning and product marketing roles at industry-leading vendors.
MBA graduate from Boston University's Graduate School of Management with a B.S. degree in business administration from Northeastern University
Senior Vice President, Worldwide Tracker Research
As Senior Vice President for Worldwide Tracker Research, Mr. Prothero is responsible for managing IDC's largest research practice which includes Tracker, QView and Forecaster products. Across the globe, IDC has over 250 semiannual and quarterly worldwide, regional, and local country tracker products covering hardware, software, IT services, and telecom equipment. His specific responsibilities include overseeing tracker data quality and consistency, taxonomy evolution, global tracker analyst direction, tracker tools and data platforms, the efficiency of the research tracker processes, and client satisfaction.
Prior to this role, Mr. Prothero led the Latin America business unit for IDC, overseeing business operations across 7 countries in the Latin America region, managing functional areas including Research, Consulting, Conferences, GMS, Sales, Marketing, and Finance. Mr. Prothero joined IDC in 1993 as the second employee in the Latin America region. Under his leadership the Latin America region grew to over 120 employees with research coverage in 15 countries in the region.
Prior to IDC, Mr. Prothero was a senior consultant at Windermere Associates, a San Francisco-based strategic planning consulting firm. Mr. Prothero received his M.B.A. in International Finance from the University of California at Berkeley and his B.A. in Economics from Swarthmore College. He speaks Portuguese and Spanish and a bit of Japanese.
Senior Vice President, Mobility, Security, Consumer, Semiconductors, Telecom, Client Computing and Imaging/Print/Document Solutions
Dave Reinsel is senior vice president for several IDC research areas, including: mobility, security, consumer, semiconductors, telecommunications, client computing, and imaging/print/document solutions. Mr. Reinsel and his team of over 50 analysts provide timely and industry-leading insight and analysis for IT professionals, investors, resellers, distributors, and manufacturers worldwide. In addition to delivering annual and quarterly forecasts and analyses on today’s mainstream technologies, his research teams are responsible for delivering research and insight around next generation technologies such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), 3D printing, next generation security, and robotics.
Mr. Reinsel joined IDC in 2000 to lead IDC’s hard disk drive research. Today, Mr. Reinsel provides custom research and consulting for IDC clients on industry trends, product requirements, and marketing strategies and maintains detailed models and research related to high profile research like the Digital Universe and Where in the World is Storage. In 2006, Mr. Reinsel was a recipient of IDC's most prestigious research award for his professional excellence in market research.
Mr. Reinsel’s more than 23 years of experience within the IT industry and broad responsibilities allow him to monitor and portend technology intersections and opportunities as Digital Transformation ensues across the globe, throughout businesses, and within our individual lives, giving him ample opportunities to speak at conferences worldwide. You can follow Dave on Twitter @DavesBytes.
Mr. Reinsel holds a B.A. in education concentrated in the field of mathematics from the University of Missouri, Kansas City.
Chief Financial Officer
As Chief Financial Officer, Mark Sullivan is responsible for IDC’s worldwide financial reporting, analysis, and planning. He is a member of IDC’s senior management committee, and reports to President and CEO Kirk Campbell.
Mr. Sullivan joined IDC in 1992 as director of finance. He was named vice president, finance in 1998, and CFO in 1999.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Sullivan served as controller from 1988 –1992 for CW Publishing, publisher of Computerworld. He joined International Data Group in 1987 as a financial analyst.
Prior to his IDG tenure, he held various financial analyst positions at General Electric Company manufacturing operations in Michigan, Ohio, and Massachusetts. He completed, with honors, General Electric’s Financial Management Program.
Mr. Sullivan earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in finance from Michigan State University.
Managing Director, IDC Japan
Masato Takeuchi is the Managing Director for IDC Japan. Mr. Takeuchi joined IDC as Managing Director in 2000 and oversees key business operations and functional areas such as Research, Consulting, Sales, Marketing & Finance for IDC Japan. Mr. Takeuchi is also a member of the executive committee where he is involved in strategic planning for IDC.
Mr. Takeuchi has more than 30 years of experience in sales, marketing, training, and consulting in the information and communications technology industry and nearly 20 years in management roles including developing research businesses and studying management intelligence at IDC. Mr. Takeuchi also published a book entitled, “A Theory of Market Intelligence” in 2015.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Takeuchi was a board member, General Manager of Sales and Marketing at VeriSign Japan. In his role, he was involved in the creation and implementation of the authentication business and strove to establish a direct sales framework. Mr. Takeuchi also spoke at events and conferences to educate markets about the application of newly developed authentication technologies to business.
Prior to join VeriSign, Mr. Takeuchi served in various capacities at Digital Equipment Corporation Japan (now Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Japan). Subsequently, he founded the consulting business as Consulting Business Unit Manager and grew the communications business as the Telecom Sales Manager, where he made significant inroads in NTT-related business.
Mr. Takeuchi holds B.A. degree from Waseda University and M.B.A. for Social Design from Rikkyo University in Japan.
He was also awarded IDG’s 2010 Chairman’s Cup for Overall Management Excellence.
Chief Sales Officer
As Chief Sales Officer, Brad Thorpe has responsibility for leading all IDC direct sales and customer service to the ICT Vendor, Financial, and End User communities, as well as indirect sales including partnerships. He is IDC's chief customer advocate.
Prior to joining IDC in 1986 Mr. Thorpe was employed at NCR Corporation in both Commercial and Federal Accounts Sales, and before that he held sales positions with Western Microtechnology, a distributor of semiconductors, computer systems, and peripherals.
Mr. Thorpe's first role in 1986 at IDC was as a Unix research analyst and product champion. He then moved into sales, first in California where he was responsible for Western regional and major accounts sales. He was promoted to Director of Major Accounts and relocated to the East Coast to develop IDC's first major account focus, building and implementing its now renowned global account management program. In the NYC area, he led the selling effort for IDC's entry into providing its technology research to equity analysts and investment bankers following technology companies through its successful Investment Research Services.
Most recently, Mr. Thorpe was Group Vice President and General Manager of Enterprise Major, Financial, and Sector Sales, leading sales to IDC's largest ICT vendor clients, the financial community, and emerging ICT vendors and supply chain.
In addition to earning a BA in English from Kenyon College, Mr. Thorpe has participated in numerous sales, sales management, and negotiation courses, including the Sales Management and Global Account Management programs at the Columbia University Business School.
Group VP, Latin America
Ricardo Villate is responsible for the management and direction of IDC's business across the Latin America region.
Mr. Villate has more than 20 years of experience in the IT and financial industries in Latin America. During his tenure at IDC, he has held various positions within the organization. Prior to becoming Group Vice President for Latin America, he was the Vice President for all Research and Consulting in the region and, prior to that, General Manager, Southern Cone (Argentina, Chile, Peru). Before that, Ricardo held several regional management positions. He started his career at IDC Latin America as a senior analyst in the enterprise IT industry. His knowledge comes through his years as an IT market consultant combined with his background in the financial services industry.
Mr. Villate spends much of his time traveling throughout Latin America presenting at industry and vendor events on digital transformation, 3rd Platform innovation and the evolution of ICT, marketing in the IT industry, Latin America in the context of Emerging Markets, and IT sales and partnering strategies, among other topics.
He is frequently quoted in the Latin America media including the Wall Street Journal, America Economia, LatinTrade, and BNAmericas.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. Villate worked as a director for Fiduciaria Popular, a financial institution in Colombia, and in IBM Colombia.
Mr. Villate is a graduate from the Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Colombia, with a degree in Industrial Engineering. He also holds a marketing degree from the University of California at Berkeley and an economics degree from the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota. While in the Colombian army, Mr. Villate lived in the Middle East. He is a native Spanish speaker.
Senior Vice President, IT Executive, Software, Services and Industry Research
Meredith Whalen is Senior Vice President of IT Executive, Software, Services and Industry Research. Her global team of analysts leverage research and advisory services to empower business transformation for the Global 2000.
Ms. Whalen is responsible for IDC’s technology professional advisory services, overseeing the research, client services, and marketing activities aimed at technology professionals in IT and lines of business. Ms. Whalen architected IDC’s DecisonScapes, a portfolio of decision-making methodologies that enable professionals to better plan, deploy and optimize their technology initiatives. Since introducing the IDC DecisionScape in 2014, IDC analysts around the world have published more than 600 research studies.
Ms. Whalen also oversees IDC’s Software and Services groups, serving technology suppliers and buyers. She manages Customer Insights and Advisory Practice, which produces global IT spending forecasts for over 100 technologies in more than 50 countries.
Most recently, Ms. Whalen led the creation of IDC's Digital Transformation and Leading in 3D thought leadership platforms. Ms. Whalen and her analyst teams advise line of business executives on how to digitally transform their organization. In parallel, they advise the IT organization how to transform IT to be an effective partner to the business in digital transformation.
Ms. Whalen keynotes at CIO summits in North America, EMEA, Asia Pacific and Latin America.
Early in Ms. Whalen’s career at IDC, she initiated IDC's coverage of application service providers (ASPs), created IDC's first global view of business process outsourcing services, and designed the Services Group's global research process to ensure consistency in market taxonomies, research architecture, and forecasting.
Ms. Whalen started her career in IT business consulting, advising clients on mid-range systems. She holds a B.A. with honors from Wellesley College and an M.B.A. with honors with from Babson's F.W. Olin Graduate School of Management.
Chief Operating Office, IDC Western Europe and GVP Finance, IDC EMEA
As Chief Operating Officer of IDC Western Europe, Robert White is responsible for the Western Europe Country operations and the European Sales team. He is also responsible for the Finance function in IDC EMEA.
Mr. White joined IDC in 1992 as Financial Controller of IDC UK. He was appointed IDC European Finance director in 1997 and later took on responsibility for managing other European support functions.
Prior to joining IDC, Mr. White held a number of accounting positions within different manufacturing companies and later joined Groupe Bull, where he served as business manager from 1989 until he joined IDC in 1992.
Mr. White graduated from the University of York with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics.